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Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №45 "Writing"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 45. Writing

 

Informal letter

Formal letter

 Приветствие 

 Dear  + our friend’s first name

 Dear + Sir or Madam  (если мы не знаем имени получателя)

 Dear + Mr/Mrs/Ms + фамилия получателя (когда мы знаем,  кому именно адресуем письмо)

Начало письма

 Вводные фразы

 How are you? I’m fine. Thanks for your letter. It was really  nice to hear from you.

 I'm sorry I haven't written for such a long time but ...

 Hi! How’s everything (going)? I hope you are well. Sorry I  haven’t written sooner, but…

 Цель написания письма
 The reason I’m writing is…
 I’m writing to tell you…
 You asked me to recommend some (places to stay in my country) ...
I've managed to find out some information about (language schools) for you.

 Thank you for your letter of...
 Thank you for contacting me.
 Further to your last letter,...
 I apologize for not getting in contact with you before now.

 I am writing in connection with...

 I am writing with regard to...

 In reply to your letter, here are...

 We would like to point outthat...

 Could you give me some information about...

 I would like to know...

 I'm interested in

 I'd begratefulif you could...

Основная часть

 Выполнение пунктов задания. Объединяющие формулы

 Firstly, secondly, to begin with, in addition, furthermore, lastly, moreover, besides; on the one hand…on the other hand,  however, still, in spite of/despite, nevertheless; all in all, to sum up, in conclusion

Завершение

 Завершающие разговорные формулы

 I’d better go now.

 I can’t wait to hear from you.

 Write back soon.

 Well, that’s all my news.

 Look forward to hearing from/seeing you soon.
 Give my regards to your parents.
 Drop me a line.
 Love,/Yours,/Best wishes

 Thank you in advance for your help in this matter.
 Thank you for your help.
 Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions.
 I will contact you again shortly.
 I am looking forward to hearing from you.

Задание не требует написания адреса и имени.

 

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №44 "Foreign languages in human life"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 44. Foreign languages in human life


  Some of us wonder very often what our lives would be like if there was only one language on Earth. Perhaps life would seem easier and more convenient.However, such uniformity would affect our lives only negatively. Being universal in terms of its use, only one existing language would undermine the joyous diversity which our modern world has in a great amount. Cultures would lack their main distinguishing features – languages.Thus, their uniqueness would disappear. Because languages represent different ways of expressing our thoughts and feelings, each language is rich with its own hues and tones in the whole spectrum of all possible approaches to verbally deliver information.
  Only bilingual people are able to understand fully how foreign languages can differ between each other because they are capable of noticing common distinction in the ways they express the same things in different languages.It is noteworthy that the most treasured thing to be shared – the feeling of love – bilingual people tend to express only in the language that, in their opinion, is more advanced in being sensitive and emotional.
  Apart from everything that was said above, foreign languages make our life diverse in the way of introducing us to several peculiarities of average characters of foreign people who speak the languages that we learn. Through this, we become familiar with foreign cultures.This makes us able to get to know the spirit of persons who are part of societies that are distant from us. In short, foreign languages make our life interesting and diverse so much that life without them is hardly imagined.
  Knowledge of foreign languages helps to promote cultural, educational and technical cooperation among nations. That’s why one of the characteristic features of life in our country today is a great interest in the study of foreign languages — chiefly English.At present English is the most important of the world’s languages. In number of speakers it ranks second. The use of English in diplomacy, commerce and science is evidence of its importance.That’s why many millions of people learn it as a second language.The growth in political, scientific, economic; cultural and educational contacts with different countries has set the scene for a renewed interest in foreign languages studies.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку 49 "Иностранные языки в жизни человека"

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №43 "Educational system"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 43. Educational system


Education in Great Britain
  Children in Britain must attend school from the age of 5 (4 in Northern Ireland) until they are 16. Before the start of formal schooling, many children attend nursery schools attached to primary schools. In addition some parents elect to send their children to private (fee-paying) nursery schools or kindergartens. In England and Wales, many primary schools also operate an early admission policy where they admit children under 5 into what are called reception classes.Children first attend infants’ school or departments. At 7 they move to the junior school and the usual age for transfer from junior to secondary school is 11 (12 in Scotland).
  Secondary education can be obtained in different ways. Comprehensive schools are intended for all pupils, whatever their abilities. They are state schools which is the general term for any school which is run by the government and where the parents do not have to pay. Grammar schools in Britain are popular too because they offer a good academic education. Children enter grammar schools on the basis of their abilities taking the 11+ or entrance exam. A small minority of children attend secondary modern schools (around 4%). These schools provide more general and technical education for children aged 11-16. City Technology Colleges aim to give boys and girls a broad secondary education with a strong technological and business slant. There are also independent (fee-paying) schools in Great Britain. They usually have good academic standards and are attended by pupils from an upper class or wealthy background.

 

Education in the USA
  Today, 88% of American children attend public schools (financed by the government) and 12% go to private schools. Every year about 12 million Americans become students in over 3,000 colleges and universities of every type: private, public, church-related, small and large.
The United States does not have a national system of education. It means that most educational matters are left to the separate states or the local community. Because of the great variety of schools and colleges, and the many differences between them, we cannot speak about a typical American school or college. Yet, there are enough basic similarities in structure among the various schools and systems to give some general comments.
  Most schools start at the kindergarten level at the age of 5. The elementary school (or grade school) goes from age 6 to 11 or 12 (grades 1to 5 or 6). This is usually followed by a middle school (grades 6-8) or Junior High School (grades 7-9). High schools include 3 or 4 years, usually until the age of 18. There are almost always required subjects and sometimes students at more advanced levels can choose some subjects.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №48 "Система образования в Украине, Британии и США" 

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №42 "School life. Favourite school subjects"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.

Конспект 42. School life. Favourite school subjects


  I go to school five days a week except Saturday and Sunday when I have my deserved rest. Classes in our school start at 8 o'clock in the morning and last till 14.30. Usually we have 6 or 7 lessons a day. We study a lot of different subjects: English, History, Geography, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Math, etc. I like History and English most of all. I usually receive good marks in these subjects. I think that the subject of history is very interesting because we need to learn about how our country came to be, and we need to know about the famous people that ruled the countries because you never know what job you might have or what you might become when you grow older.
  A school year is divided into two terms. It begins on the 1st of September known as the Day of knowledge and finishes in May. Each term is followed by holidays. Our school was built about ten years ago. Our classroom is on the third floor. Its windows face the school-yard. There are two large windows in our classroom; a great amount of flowers grow in pots that stand on the window-sills. It is pupils of our class who are responsible to water the flowers several times a week. And we all do it with great care and pleasure. On the walls of our classroom there are different colour maps and portraits, tables and wall newspapers.
  Every pupil has a record book where our teachers write down our marks and we write down home tasks. Lessons usually take place in such a way that a teacher asks a question and the pupils who can give an answer raise their hands and the teacher calls out one of them to answer the question. Teachers often call pupils to the blackboard to do different exercises or to write some sentences from dictation. When they make a mistake, other pupil can be called out to correct a mistake or sometimes the teacher corrects it himself. After every lesson teachers give us home tasks both written and oral forms.
  I like going to school because here I have many friends and wise teachers who can always give a piece of advice. And I like studying as well, it brings me a lot of pleasure and I like to learn new facts about the world.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №46 "Школьная жизнь"

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №47 "Школьные предметы"

 

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №41 "Upbringing. Generation gap"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 41. Upbringing. Generation gap


  Raising a child is the hardest, most responsible and satisfying task a human being can face. It's also the job for which people receive the least formal training.Each person's knowledge of how to bring up a child usually comes from their surroundings and their own upbringing. This may result in patterns from the parent's own social experiences being repeated and passed on to their children.
  Offering explanations helps children work matters out for themselves. Take time to point out how things are connected, for example, in terms of cause and effect.Parents, who think out loud with their children, will see them develop a similar train of thought. They will learn to talk and think in a more sophisticated way. If parents express emotions and feelings, their children will learn it's okay to do the same. When your children want to talk or ask questions, encourage them. If you're dismissive, or always say you're too busy, they may express frustration and stop wanting to share their thoughts and feelings.
 If the family has a problem that concerns your child, involve them in the discussion. Try to find possible solutions together with him or her.When discussing options, also talk about consequences. The possible outcome will influence your final decision. Be open to the child's suggestions. Let them take part in the negotiations and the decision.A child who experiences this kind of communication will become confident and learn the rules of good communication.
  Though sometimes the situation is a bit more difficult than it looks.From cell phones and texting to religion and manners, younger and older Americans see the world differently, creating a large generation gap. Nowadays Americans of different ages are at odds over a range of social and technological issues. Almost 8 in 10 people believe there is a major difference in the point of view of younger people and older people today.
  Asked to identify where older and younger people differ most, 47 percent said social values and morality. People age 18 to 29 were more likely to report disagreements over lifestyle, views on family, relationships and dating, while older people cited differences in a sense of entitlement. Those in the middle-age groups also often pointed to a difference in manners.Religion is a far bigger part of the lives of older adults. About two-thirds of people 65 and older said religion is very important to them. Younger people are more likely to embrace technology. The age gap widened even more over cell phones and text messaging.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №45 "Образование, учеба, воспитание"

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №40 "International organizations"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 40. International organizations


  International organization is an institution drawing membership from at least three states, having activities in several states, and whose members are held together by a formal agreement.
 The Union of International Associations, a coordinating body, differentiates between the more than 250 international governmental organizations (IGOs), which have been established by intergovernmental agreements and whose members are states, and the approximately 6,000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), whose members are associations or individuals.
  IGOs range in size from three members to more than 185 (e.g., the United Nations [UN]), and their geographic representation varies from one world region (e.g., the Organization of American States) to all regions (e.g., the International Monetary Fund). Whereas some IGOs are designed to achieve a single purpose (e.g., the World Intellectual Property Organization), others have been developed for multiple tasks (e.g., the North Atlantic Treaty Organization). Their organizational structures can be simple or highly complex depending on their size and tasks.
 In 1899 and 1907 European and non-European states met to develop rules to regulate armaments and the conduct of war. These conferences produced the Hague Conventions, which included agreements on the peaceful settlement of war, the treatment of prisoners of war, and the rights of neutral states. These various meetings and agreements served as precursors to the international organizations of the 20th century, such as the League of Nations and the United Nations (UN). Spurred by the political and economic interdependencies and advances in communication and transportation that developed after World War II, the UN became the centrepiece of a network of international organizations.
  By providing political institutions through which states can work together to achieve common objectives, international organizations can help to foster cooperative behaviour. IGOs also serve useful purposes for individual states, which often use them as instruments of foreign policy to legitimate their actions and to constrain the behaviour of other states.
  Although the daily operations of most international organizations are managed by specialized international bureaucracies, ultimate authority rests with state members. IGOs often work closely with other organizations, including NGOs (e.g., Greenpeace and Amnesty International), which serve many of the same functions as their IGO counterparts and are particularly useful for mobilizing public support, monitoring the effectiveness of international aid, and providing information and expertise. Although many of the thousands of NGOs direct their activities toward less developed countries in Africa and Asia, most of these groups are based in developed states. Only a small fraction of NGOs are international in scope, though they have played an important role in international relations.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №40 "Международные организации, международные движения" 

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №39 "Human rights and obligations"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 39. Human rights and obligations


  Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.
  Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.
  The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights law. This principlehas been reiterated in numerous international human rights conventions, declarations, and resolutions. The 1993 Vienna World Conference on Human Rights, for example, noted that it is the duty of States to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems.
  All States have ratified at least one, and 80% of States have ratified four or more, of the core human rights treaties, reflecting consent of States which creates legal obligations for them and giving concrete expression to universality. Some fundamental human rights norms enjoy universal protection by customary international law across all boundaries and civilizations.
  Non-discrimination is a cross-cutting principle in international human rights law. The principle is present in all the major human rights treaties and provides the central theme of some of international human rights conventions such as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
Human rights entail both rights and obligations. States assume obligations and duties under international law to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights. The obligation to respect means that States must refrain from interfering with or curtailing the enjoyment of human rights. The obligation to protect requires States to protect individuals and groups against human rights abuses. The obligation to fulfil means that States must take positive action to facilitate the enjoyment of basic human rights. At the individual level, while we are entitled our human rights, we should also respect the human rights of others.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №39 "Права и обязанности" 

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №38 "Cinema and television"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 38. Cinema and television


  The history of film began in the 1890s, with the invention of the first motion-picture cameras and the establishment of the first film production companies and cinemas. The films of the 1890s were under a minute long and until 1927 motion pictures were produced without sound. The first eleven years of motion pictures show the cinema moving from a novelty to an established large-scale entertainment industry. The films became several minutes long consisting of several shots. The first film studios were built in 1897. Overall, from about 1910, American films had the largest share of the market in all European countries except France.
  As films grew longer, specialist writers were employed to simplify more complex stories derived from novels or plays into a form that could be contained on one reel. Genres began to be used as categories; the main division was into comedy and drama, but these categories were further subdivided. The years of the First World War were a complex transitional period for the film industry. The exhibition of films changed from short one-reel programmes to feature films. Exhibition venues became larger and began charging higher prices. By 1914, continuity cinema was the established mode of commercial cinema. One of the advanced continuity techniques involved an accurate and smooth transition from one shot to another.
  The American industry, or "Hollywood", as it was becoming known after its new geographical center in California, gained the position it has held ever since; film factory for the world and exporting its product to most countries on earth. During late 1927, Warners released The Jazz Singer, the first synchronized dialogue (and singing) in a feature film. By the end of 1929, Hollywood was almost all-talkie, with several competing sound systems.
  Thus began what is now often called "The Golden Age of Hollywood", which refers roughly to the period beginning with the introduction of sound until the late 1940s. The American cinema reached its peak and global appeal during this period. During the immediate post-war years the cinematic industry was also threatened by television, and the increasing popularity of the medium meant that some film theatres would bankrupt and close.
  During the 1980s, audiences began increasingly watching films on their home VCRs. Eventually, the sale and rental of films on home video became a significant "second venue" for exhibition of films, and an additional source of revenue for the film industries. The Lucas–Spielberg combine used to dominate "Hollywood" cinema for much of the 1980s, and lead to much imitation. The early 1990s saw the development of a commercially successful independent cinema in the United States. As of 2010, the largest film industries by number of feature films produced are those of India, the United States and China.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №38 "Кино, телевидение" 

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №37 "Museums and exhibitions"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 37. Museums and exhibitions


  A museum is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities, towns and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public. The city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries.
Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts. These were often displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. Public access to these museums was often possible for the "respectable", especially to private art collections. The oldest such museum in evidence was Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, dating from 530 BC and devoted to Mesopotamian antiquities.
  The first "public" museums were often accessible only by the middle and upper classes. When the British Museum opened to the public in 1759, it was a concern that large crowds could damage the artifacts. Prospective visitors to the British Museum had to apply in writing for admission, and small groups were allowed into the galleries each day.The British Museum became increasingly popular during the 19th century, amongst all age groups and social classes who visited the British Museum, especially on public holidays.
  American museums eventually joined European museums as the world's leading centers for the production of new knowledge in their fields of interest. A period of intense museum building, in both an intellectual and physical sense was realized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. While many American museums, both Natural History museums and Art museums alike, were founded with the intention of focusing on the scientific discoveries and artistic developments in North America, many moved to emulate their European counterparts in certain ways (including the development of Classical collections from ancient Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia and Rome).
  Museums to this day contribute new knowledge to their fields and continue to build collections that are useful for both research and display.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №37 "Музеи, выставки"

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №36 "Objects of cultural and historical heritage"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 36. Objects of cultural and historical heritage


Ukraine
  Kyiv Pechersk Lavra, also known as the Kiev Monastery of the Caves, is a historic Orthodox Christian monastery which gave its name to one of the city districts where it is located in Kiev.Since its foundation as the cave monastery in 1051 the Lavra has been a preeminent center of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Eastern Europe. Together with the Saint Sophia Cathedral, it is inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was granted the national status on 13 March 1996.
  Lviv's Old Town is the historic centre of the western Ukrainian city of Lviv recognized as the State Historic-Architectural Sanctuary in 1975. On 5 December 1998, during the 22nd Session of the World Heritage Committee in Kyoto (Japan), Lviv was included to the UNESCO World Heritage List. One of the reasons was that ‘in its urban fabric and its architecture, Lviv is an outstanding example of the fusion of the architectural and artistic traditions of eastern Europe with those of Italy and Germany.

 

Great Britain
  Westminster Palace, rebuilt from the year 1840 on the site of important medieval remains, is a fine example of neo-Gothic architecture. The site – which also comprises the small medieval Church of Saint Margaret, built in Perpendicular Gothic style, and Westminster Abbey, where all the sovereigns since the 11th century have been crowned – is of great historic and symbolic significance.
  The massive White Tower is a typical example of Norman military architecture, whose influence was felt throughout the kingdom. It was built on the Thames by William the Conqueror to protect London and assert his power. The Tower of London – an imposing fortress with many layers of history, which has become one of the symbols of royalty – was built around the White Tower.


The USA
  The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in the middle of New York Harbor, in Manhattan, New York City. The statue, designed by FrédéricAuguste Bartholdi, an Italian-French sculptor, and dedicated on October 28, 1886, was a gift to the United States from the people of France. The statue is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue is an icon of freedom and of the United States: a welcoming signal to immigrants arriving from abroad.
  Olympic National Park is a United States national park located in the state of Washington, in the Olympic Peninsula. The park has four basic regions: the Pacific coastline, alpine areas, the west side temperate rainforest and the forests of the drier east side.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №36 "Объекты наследия в Украине, Британии и США"  

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №35 "Outstanding cultural and historical workers"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 35. Outstanding cultural and historical workers


Ukraine
  A scion of ancient kozak aristocracy, MykolaLysenko is known as the Father of Ukrainian Music. A graduate of the Leipzig Conservatory, a pianist, and a musical ethnographer, Lysenko created a national school of composition that seamlessly integrated elements of Ukrainian folk music into a mainstream Western style.
  His works include a cyclic setting of Shevchenko's poetry; operas, including Taras Bulba; art songs and choral works; cantatas; piano pieces; and chamber music. Popularly, Shevchenko, Franko, and LesiaUkrainka are known in Ukrainian culture as the Prophet or Bard, the Stonecutter, and the Daughter of Prometheus, images based on their respective works.
  From 1917 to 1922 numerous new theaters appeared in both Eastern and western Ukraine. The most prominent new figure in theater was Les' Kurbas, director of The Young Theatre in Kyiv and later of Bereziltheater in Kharkiv. His innovative approach combined expressionism with traditions of ancient Greek and Ukrainian folk theaters. Expressionist style was adopted in the cinema by the internationally recognized director Oleksandr Dovzhenko.

 

Great Britain
  Sir Winston Churchill was a British politician and Nobel laureate who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the 20th century, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer (as Winston S. Churchill), and an artist. Churchill is the only British Prime Minister to have won the Nobel Prize in Literature since its inception in 1901, and was the first person to be made an honorary citizen of the United States.
  Born on October 13, 1925, in Grantham, England, Margaret Thatcher became Britain's Conservative Party leader and in 1979 was elected prime minister, the first woman to hold the position. During her three terms, she cut social welfare programs, reduced trade union power and privatized certain industries. Thatcher resigned in 1991 due to unpopular policy and power struggles in her party.

 

The USA
  Thus, one of the most well-known statesmen of the USA, Abraham Lincoln, was born in 1809. His father was a poor farmer and the boy had to work much on their small farm. But he read a lot, too. When he grew older he felt a strong interest to law. He became a lawyer and he always tried to use the law to defend people. In 1846 he was elected to Congress. There he said he was against slavery. In 1860 he became the President of the USA. In 1864 Abraham Lincoln was elected the President again, but a year later he was killed by his enemies in a theatre in Washington.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №35 "Культурные и исторические деятели Украины, Британии и США"  

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №33 "Holidays, memorable dates and events"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 33. Holidays, memorable dates and events


Great Britain
  There are fewer public holidays in Great Britain than in other European countries. The most favourite holiday is Christmas. Every year the people of Norway give the city of London a present. It's a big Christmas tree and it stands in the Trafalgar Square.Before Christmas, groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money for charities and sing carols, traditional Christmas songs. The fun starts the night before, on the 24th of December. Traditionally this is the day when people decorate their trees. Children hang stockings at their beds, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and fill them with toys and sweets. Christmas is known to be a family holiday. All the members of the family usually meet for the big Christmas dinner of turkey and Christmas pudding. And everyone gives and receives presents.
  The 26th of December, Boxing Day, is an extra holiday after Christmas. It’s the time to visit friends and relatives.
  In England the New Year is not so widely celebrated as Christmas. Some people ignore it completely and go to bed at the same time as usual on New Year's Eve. Others celebrate it arranging either a family party or visiting the one's arranged by a group of young people. The type of celebration is varied very much according to local customs, family traditions and personal tastes.
  Easter is also a time when certain old traditions are observed. It is the time of giving presents, and the Easter egg is the most popular emblem of this holiday. Nowadays Easter eggs are usually made of chocolate in Great Britain.Tradition says that the Easter Bunny (rabbit) delivers these eggs. Easter cake is an iced fruitcake with a marzipan ring on the top.
  Besides public holidays, there are some special festivals in Great Britain. One of them takes place on the 5th of November. On that day, in 1605, Guy Fawkes tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I. He didn't succeed. The King's men found the bomb, took Guy Fawkes to the Tower and cut off his head.Since that day the British celebrate the 5th of November. They burn a dummy, made of straw and old clothes, in a bonfire and let off fireworks. This dummy is called a "guy" (like Guy Fawkes).

 

The United States of America
  There are a lot of holidays in the USA. Many of them are associated with the history of the nation. The main holidays of the USA are New Year's Day, Easter, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas. Less popular are Martin Luther King’s Day, Columbus Day and Labor Day.
  The New Year's Eve is a time for merriment. Most Americans spend this night with friends, at home or in restaurants.
At Easter there is a tradition for people to buy new clothes. After church services many people take walks along the streets of their towns, wearing their new Easter hats and suits. This is usually called the "Easter Parade".
  Memorial Day comes on May 30. It is dedicated to the memory of those who died for America in different wars. The national flags are put on the graves of soldiers on this day.
 The 4th of July, an Independence Day, is the biggest national holiday of the USA. On this day in 1776 a document, known as the Declaration of Independence, was adopted. During this holiday American cities have parades, people shoot off fire-works in parks and fields.
  Halloween is a festival that takes place on October, 31. In the United States children wear costumes and masks and go trick-or-treating. Many of them carve jack-o'-lantens out of pumpkins. Fortunetelling and storytelling about ghosts and witches are popular activities.
  Thanksgiving Day comes on the fourth Thursday of November. When the first settlers landed in America, their first year was very hard and 50 of 100 people died. But the Indians taught people how to plant corn and wild vegetables and in autumn they got a large harvest. Thanksgiving Day was their holiday, the day of giving thanks to God. It is a family holiday and Americans try to gather all family at home on this day.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №33 "Праздники в Украине и Британии"

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №34 "Customs and traditions"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 34. Customs and traditions


British traditional life
  Many young people in Britain today accept most of the beliefs, customs and behavior of their parents most of the time. But they have become much more independent since the Pop Revolution in the 1960s. At that time they developed their own separate culture: they listened to different music, wore different clothes, had different ideas about life, used different words and behaved differently.
  Today unemployment continues to have a strong influence on young people in Britain so most of them are not interested in being rebels any more. Hippies, teddy-boys and punks have been replaced by ‘yuppies’ (young urban professionals) whose main ambition is to earn a lot of money and spend it on expensive possessions and activities.
  Most young people eventually get married, buy or rent a house or a flat of their own and start a family. In general, people get married later than they used to: women in late 20s, men in late 30s. Elderly people tent to live alone; it’s unusual now to find three generations living in one house as they used to do in the past. So the family ties have become much looser.
  It’s impossible not to mention pubs when speaking about the British way of life. Pubs are the most popular places of meeting people in an informal atmosphere. They are like local clubs where people from the neighbourhood come in the evening to have a beer and a chat. There are all kind of pubs: city pubs for rich businessmen where the seats are soft and there are bowls of flowers on the tables; simple ‘out of the way’ pubs where young people and artists like to go; old country pubs with open wood fire.

 

American way of life
  Nowadays young Americans tend not to live with their families but in apartments in the cities, shared rental houses in residential areas where everyone is more or less of the same age. Young people often move away from home when they leave school into shared apartments. Older people often do not live with their grown-up children. Many live in old people’s homes. Some live in special retirement communities, built for old citizens, where there are no young children and the atmosphere is quiet. Americans are frequently on the move, and some families change their homes every few years.
  Hobbies are a great English and American tradition. Many people have pets as their hobbies. Gardening is also among the most popular hobbies for all ages in America. Others are mad about their cars, pick up trucks or their motorcycles. They spent their weekends washing them, painting them, or buying new equipment to make them go even faster or make them more impressive.
  Children and teenagers are great collectors. They collect stamps or postcards, or pictures of favourite baseball, football or pop stars. And, of course, CDs are very popular item to collect.
  Many people, especially retired who have much spare time, attend evening classes to learn cooking, languages and literature, ballet or body building. They may also organize themselves into special interest groups of those, for instance, who love travelling or path-walking.
Most Americans love to spend time outdoors, and many go for holidays or long weekends into the 35 fabulous national parks. These magnificent areas of countryside include tropical forests, high montains, dry deserts and prairies full of wild animals. There are camping places in many of these parks as well as museums.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №34 "Обычаи и традиции в Украине"

Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №32 "Ukraine in the world community"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 32. Ukraine in the world community


  Ukraine is one of the largest countries of Eastern Europe. The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv. It is a sovereign state whose independence was declared on August 24, 1991 and it has its own government. The political system of Ukraine, its laws, its home and foreign policy, the rights and duties of its citizens are established, based and guaranteed by the Constitution. It has state borders with Russia, Belarus and Moldova. It also borders on Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. In the south it is washed by the Black and the Azov seas.
  On December 1, 1991 the All-Ukrainian referendum showed a remarkable level for independence: over 90% of voters declared their wish to live in an independent state. Despite Mykhaylo Gorbachev’s attempts to save the integrity of the USSR, by the end of 1991 the union of the 15 republics formally came to an end. Ukraine was immediately recognized by the international community. Relations with Russia and other former republics of the USSR were the main concern for the new Ukrainian government, and on December 8, 1991, Ukraine, Russia and Byelorus announced the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). All the sides agreed to their separate independence, respect for territorial integrity and inviolability of borders. They also identified areas of joint activity and cooperation, and a unified control of nuclear weapons.
  As for its economy, Ukraine is known to have extremely rich and complementary mineral resources in high concentrations and close to each other. Rich iron ore reserves form the basis of Ukraine’s large iron and steel industry. One of the richest areas of manganese-bearing ores in the world is located near Nikopol. As for natural gas, one can say that in the 1960s the extraction of it in Ukraine accounted for one-third of the USSR’s total output. However, both gas and oil productions declined after 1975, which made Ukraine an importer of fuels today.
Owing partly to rich soils and a favourable climate, Ukraine’s crop production is highly developed. Its grain and potato output almost rivals that of France, and our country is the world’s largest producer of sugar beets. Ukraine’s livestock sector lags behind the crop sector, but its total output is still considerably larger than those of most European countries. The chernozem soils of the forest-steppe zone are among the world’s more productive farmlands and are exceptionally good for wheat and sugar beet.
  The industrial heartland of the country is the Donets Coal Basin. It is the most industrialized region of the country and one of the world’s major metallurgical and heavy industry complexes. The basin has large iron and steelworks, and plants that produce mining equipment, other types of heavy machinery and a variety of chemicals. Ukraine has a major ferrous-metals industry, and it rivals China as the fourth largest steel producer in the world.
  Ukraine is a member of the United Nation Organization and takes part in the work of many international organizations. Though Ukraine is now undergoing certain economic difficulties, throughout recent years the country has shown political stability, progress in building democratic institutions, and ethnic peace are the guarantees of its future prosperity.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №32 "Украина в мировом обществе" 

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