Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 38. Cinema and television
The history of film began in the 1890s, with the invention of the first motion-picture cameras and the establishment of the first film production companies and cinemas. The films of the 1890s were under a minute long and until 1927 motion pictures were produced without sound. The first eleven years of motion pictures show the cinema moving from a novelty to an established large-scale entertainment industry. The films became several minutes long consisting of several shots. The first film studios were built in 1897. Overall, from about 1910, American films had the largest share of the market in all European countries except France.
As films grew longer, specialist writers were employed to simplify more complex stories derived from novels or plays into a form that could be contained on one reel. Genres began to be used as categories; the main division was into comedy and drama, but these categories were further subdivided. The years of the First World War were a complex transitional period for the film industry. The exhibition of films changed from short one-reel programmes to feature films. Exhibition venues became larger and began charging higher prices. By 1914, continuity cinema was the established mode of commercial cinema. One of the advanced continuity techniques involved an accurate and smooth transition from one shot to another.
The American industry, or "Hollywood", as it was becoming known after its new geographical center in California, gained the position it has held ever since; film factory for the world and exporting its product to most countries on earth. During late 1927, Warners released The Jazz Singer, the first synchronized dialogue (and singing) in a feature film. By the end of 1929, Hollywood was almost all-talkie, with several competing sound systems.
Thus began what is now often called "The Golden Age of Hollywood", which refers roughly to the period beginning with the introduction of sound until the late 1940s. The American cinema reached its peak and global appeal during this period. During the immediate post-war years the cinematic industry was also threatened by television, and the increasing popularity of the medium meant that some film theatres would bankrupt and close.
During the 1980s, audiences began increasingly watching films on their home VCRs. Eventually, the sale and rental of films on home video became a significant "second venue" for exhibition of films, and an additional source of revenue for the film industries. The Lucas–Spielberg combine used to dominate "Hollywood" cinema for much of the 1980s, and lead to much imitation. The early 1990s saw the development of a commercially successful independent cinema in the United States. As of 2010, the largest film industries by number of feature films produced are those of India, the United States and China.
Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №38 "Кино, телевидение"