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Краткий конспект подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №32 "Ukraine in the world community"

Подготовка к ЗНО. Английский язык.
Конспект 32. Ukraine in the world community


  Ukraine is one of the largest countries of Eastern Europe. The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv. It is a sovereign state whose independence was declared on August 24, 1991 and it has its own government. The political system of Ukraine, its laws, its home and foreign policy, the rights and duties of its citizens are established, based and guaranteed by the Constitution. It has state borders with Russia, Belarus and Moldova. It also borders on Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. In the south it is washed by the Black and the Azov seas.
  On December 1, 1991 the All-Ukrainian referendum showed a remarkable level for independence: over 90% of voters declared their wish to live in an independent state. Despite Mykhaylo Gorbachev’s attempts to save the integrity of the USSR, by the end of 1991 the union of the 15 republics formally came to an end. Ukraine was immediately recognized by the international community. Relations with Russia and other former republics of the USSR were the main concern for the new Ukrainian government, and on December 8, 1991, Ukraine, Russia and Byelorus announced the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). All the sides agreed to their separate independence, respect for territorial integrity and inviolability of borders. They also identified areas of joint activity and cooperation, and a unified control of nuclear weapons.
  As for its economy, Ukraine is known to have extremely rich and complementary mineral resources in high concentrations and close to each other. Rich iron ore reserves form the basis of Ukraine’s large iron and steel industry. One of the richest areas of manganese-bearing ores in the world is located near Nikopol. As for natural gas, one can say that in the 1960s the extraction of it in Ukraine accounted for one-third of the USSR’s total output. However, both gas and oil productions declined after 1975, which made Ukraine an importer of fuels today.
Owing partly to rich soils and a favourable climate, Ukraine’s crop production is highly developed. Its grain and potato output almost rivals that of France, and our country is the world’s largest producer of sugar beets. Ukraine’s livestock sector lags behind the crop sector, but its total output is still considerably larger than those of most European countries. The chernozem soils of the forest-steppe zone are among the world’s more productive farmlands and are exceptionally good for wheat and sugar beet.
  The industrial heartland of the country is the Donets Coal Basin. It is the most industrialized region of the country and one of the world’s major metallurgical and heavy industry complexes. The basin has large iron and steelworks, and plants that produce mining equipment, other types of heavy machinery and a variety of chemicals. Ukraine has a major ferrous-metals industry, and it rivals China as the fourth largest steel producer in the world.
  Ukraine is a member of the United Nation Organization and takes part in the work of many international organizations. Though Ukraine is now undergoing certain economic difficulties, throughout recent years the country has shown political stability, progress in building democratic institutions, and ethnic peace are the guarantees of its future prosperity.

Online-тест подготовки к ЗНО по английскому языку №32 "Украина в мировом обществе" 

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